France, Malta and the Netherlands are among the new countries added to the UK's quarantine list.
Travellers returning from those countries must self-isolate for 14 days on arrival in the UK.
The measure will come into force at 4am on Saturday morning.
Mr Shapps said the decision to add France to the list came after the country reported a 66% increase in the number of positive tests in the last week alone.
Monaco, Turks & Caicos and Aruba have also been added to the quarantine list.
Transport Secretary Grant Shapps announced the move just hours after the prime minister said his government would be "absolutely ruthless" in deciding whether to impose the restriction.
Mr Shapps said on Thursday night: "This evening we're announcing that there will now be a quarantine brought in for a number of other locations including France, Holland and some others.
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"That's because we've absolutely worked so hard to ensure that we're keeping our numbers down here, and we can't afford to reimport those cases from elsewhere."
He added: "We've got to a point with France in particular, and these other countries, where if we didn't announce it now, we would know that the infection rate was already too high and we were not doing anything about it.
"So we're announcing it now and it will be operational throughout the United Kingdom from 4am on Saturday morning."
The French health ministry reported 2,524 new coronavirus infections on Wednesday – the highest since its lockdown restrictions were first imposed.
The government's decision to add France to the quarantine list will dismay thousands of British holidaymakers whoRead More – Source